SCHOLARLY AND ACADEMIC PRESENTATIONS

  • Served as moderator and translator of HH the Dalai Lama for the panel on “Consciousness” with HH the Dalai Lama, Michel Bitbol, and Steven Laureys in the one-day conference “Corps Esprit Sciences: Conversations avec le Dalai Lama à l’Université de Strasbourg, September 2016; Audio recording: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gUasReYiJyQ (My session starts at 1:03 in the middle of the video)
  • “Cultivating Mental Balance” at the Centre for Positive Psychology at the University of Melbourne, Australia, August 2016
  • “Inviting Wellbeing: Techniques for Balance and Flourishing” at University of Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia, August 2016
  • “A Radically Empirical Approach to the Study of Consciousness,” sponsored by the Department of Information Engineering, University of Pisa, May 2106
  • “Meditation and Shamatha in the Buddhist Teachings” in the lecture series “Mindful Encounters” at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain, March 2016
  • “Three Dimensions of Consciousness: A Radically Empirical Buddhist View of the Mind” at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, January 2016
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  • “Buddhist and Psychological Views of Mindfulness” at the Psychology Symposium, organized by the Foundation for Psychotherapy and Buddhism and the Tarab Institute Netherlands at Nijmegen, Netherlands
  • “Buddhist and Psychological Views of Mindfulness” sponsored by the Mindfulness Association and the University of Aberdeen at Samye Ling Tibetan Centre, Eskdalemuir, Dumfries and Galloway, June 2015
  • “Cultivating Attentional Intelligence” in the lecture series “Mindful Encounters” at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain, May 2015
  • “Mindfulness in Science: Contemplative Science and Objective Science” at Copenhagen University, March 2015
  • “Cultivating Conative Intelligence” at the EQ Summit in London, hosted by RocheMartin, Sheffield Hallam University, and Sheffield Business School, March 2015
  • “Cultivating Emotional Balance—The Importance of Mindfulness in Education” at Universidad Marista, sponsored by Casa Tibet Guadalajara, Mexico, February 2015
  • “Cultivating Conative Intelligence” at the Central University of Tibetan Studies, Sarnath, India, February 2015
  • “Buddhist and Psychological Views of Mindfulness” at the “ReThinking Mindfulness” conference at MIT, May, 2014
  • “The Science of Consciousness: Scientific and Buddhist Perspectives,” sponsored by the Department of Religious Studies, Michigan State University, March, 2014
  • “The Role of Śamatha in Traditional Buddhist Practice,” at the conference “Classical Mindfulness: Enhancing Modern Mindfulness-Based Therapies” at UCLA Center for Buddhist Studies, January, 2014
  • “What Makes Us Human? Buddhist and Scientific Views” sponsored by the Departamento de Filosofía y Ética, DHCS, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico, February, 2012
  • Plenary Lecture “The Nalanda Tradition: Medicine for the Modern World” presented at the 5th Annual Day of Xuan Zang Memorial at the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara (Deemed University), Nalanda, India, February 2012
  • Workshop on mindfulness meditation at The International Conference on Yoga and Naturopathy in Bangalore, sponsored by the AYUSH Department of the Government of Karnataka, India, February, 2012
  • “The Shamatha Project: Seeds of the First Revolution in the Mind Sciences” presented at the symposium  “Mindfulness—An introduction to the science and practice of coping with restless thoughts” sponsored by the Center for Humanistic Health Research, University of Copenhagen, August 2011
  • Science of Mind Forum with HH the Dalai Lama, Paul Ekman, and Marco Oacoboni, “Happiness and Its Causes” conference, Brisbane, Australia, June 2011
  • “What Makes Us Human? Scientific and Buddhist Views,” presented in the Mind/Supermind lecture series, Santa Barbara City College, February, 2011
  • “Experience, Reason, and Faith in Science and Religion,” the Swope lecture at the University of Puget Sound, Washington, February 2011
  • “Science, Spirituality, and Education from a Spiritual Perspective,” keynote lecture at the International Conference on Science Spirituality, and Education, organized by the Namgyal Institute of Tibetology under the auspices of the Government of Sikkim, December 2010
  • “Buddhism: ‘Science of the Mind’ or Religion?” at Collegium generale, University of Bern, Switzerland, December 2010
  • “Buddhism and Science: What makes us human?” keynote lecture at “World Buddhism Conference on Buddhism and Sciences” at the College of Religious Studies, Mahidol University, December 2010
  • “The Consciousness Universe: Where Physics and Buddhism Converge” in the conference “The Role of Consciousness in Physics: Buddhist and Scientific Views,” sponsored by the Institute of Philosophy of the Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, September 2010
  • “Toward a Contemplative Science of Mind” at the Elista Medical College, Kalmykia, Russia, September 2010
  • “Where Science Ends, Buddhism Begins” at Kalmyk Institute of Humanitarian Studies and Scientific Research, Russia, September 2010
  • “What Makes Us Human? A Buddhist View” at Kalmyk State University, Kalmykia, Russia, September 2010
  • “Improving Inter-personal Relationships: Through Cultivating Emotional Awareness & Mindful Attention,” Forum with Prof. Paul Ekman, sponsored by the National University of Singapore, July 2010
  • “Experience, Reason, and Faith in Science and Religion: A Buddhist Perspectiveat annual conference of the Grand Dialogue in Science and Religion for the Greater Grand Rapids Area, sponsored by Grand Valley State University, March 2010
  • “Toward a Three-Dimensional Science of the Mind” at the “Science and Buddhism” colloquium at the University of Oxford, sponsored by the Physiology Department and the Oriental Institute of the University of Oxford, the Santa Barbara Institute for Consciousness Studies, and the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies, March, 2010
  • “Toward a Three-Dimensional Science of the Mind” at the Expert Meeting “Neuroscience, Consciousness and Spirituality II: Meditation: Neuroscientific Approaches and Philosophical Implications” at Schloss Reinach in Munzingen, Germany, sponsored by the Institut für Umweltmedizin und Krankenhaushygiene, Freiburg, February, 2010
  • “Buddhism and Science: Confrontation and Collaboration,” “Buddhism and Clinical Psychology,” and “The Shamatha Project” at the Scuola Superiore S. Anna, in La Normale University, Pisa, Italy, September, 2009
  • “Cultivating Emotional Balance,” a meditation seminar sponsored by the Dalai Lama Center for Ethics and Transformative Values, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts, September, 2009
  • “The Shamatha Project: Unlocking the Power of the Focused Mind” sponsored by the Dalai Lama Center for Ethics and Transformative Values, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts, September, 2009
  • “What is the Mind? A Buddhist View” sponsored by the Departamento de Filosofía y Ética, DHCS, Titular de la Cátedra de Investigación en Ciencia y Cultura, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico, August, 2009
  • “Buddhism and Mind Sciences: Confrontation and Collaboration,” the keynote address presented at the conference “International Conference on Buddhism and Mind Sciences: Ancient Wisdom and Modern Knowledge” organized by the College of Religious Studies, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakornpathom, Bangkok, co- sponsored by the Santa Barbara Institute for Consciousness Studies, August, 2009
  • “Teaching Genuine Happiness in Modern Education.” The University of Porto Alegre, Brazil, June, 2009
  • “Healing the Mind: Where Meditation and Neuroscience Converge.” The University of São Paulo, Brazil, June, 2009
  • “Principles of a Contemplative Science of the Mind.” Albert Albert Einstein Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa, São Paulo, Brazil, June, 2009
  • “The Conscious Universe: Where Buddhism and Science Converge.” University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June, 2009
  • “Advancing the Legacy of William James: The Radically Empirical Study of the Mind” at the conference on Computation and Neural Systems. California Institute of Technology, March, 2009
  • “The Buddhist Contribution to First-Person Cognitive Science” at the Mind and Life conference “Attention, Memory and the Mind: A Synergy of Psychological, Neuroscientific and Contemplative Perspectives,” Dharamsala, India, April, 2009
  • “Buddhism and Science: Confrontation and Collaboration” Keynote lecture presented at the International Conference on Buddhism and Science, Central University of Tibetan Studies, Sarnath, Varanasi, India, January, 2009
  • “A Buddhist View of Mental Resilience” in a panel dialogue on “Mental Resilience in Times of Crisis,” chaired by Prof. Kua Ee Heok, National University of Singapore, December, 2008
  • “A Buddhist Paradigm for Human Flourishing,” the keynote address presented at the conference “International Conference on Buddhism in the Age of Consumerism” organized by the College of Religious Studies, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakornpathom, Bangkok, December 2008
  • “The Scientific Study of Mindfulness in Relation to Mental Balance” and “Neuroscience and Clinical Studies: The Scientific Perspective on Mindfulness,” presented at the conference “Caring for Ourselves (While We’re Busy Caring for Others): A Program on Mindfulness and Stress Reduction For Professionals Involved in Conflict Resolution, hosted by The Multnomah Bar Association in conjunction with the Oregon Attorney Assistance Program, Portland, Oregon, October, 2008
  • “Neuroscience of Buddhist Contemplative Practices” Keynote lecture at the conference “Neuroscience and Contemplative Practices: Transforming the Embodied Mind” at Claremont School of Theology, Claremont, California, October, 2008:
  • Seminar “Cultivating Attention and Mindfulness for the Development of Enhanced Mental Health and Balance,” presented at the University of Milan, Italy, June, 2008
  • “The Shamatha Project: Unlocking the Power of the Focused Mind,” “The Conscious Universe: Where Buddhism and Physics Converge,” and “The Question of Free Will: A Buddhist Perspective” at the Scuola Superiore S. Anna, in La Normale University, Pisa, Italy, June, 2008
  • “A Buddhist Science of the Mind,” “Balancing the Heart and Mind: A Buddhist View,” “A Buddhist View of Free Will: Beyond Determinism and Indeterminism,” and “Three Dimensions of Consciousness: A Buddhist Phenomenology of the Mind,” presented in the Buddhism Seminar, Philosophy Department, University of New Mexico, New Mexico, June, 2008
  • “The Pursuit of Meaning in the Age of Science and Religions,” presented at Amherst College, Amherst, Massachusetts, April, 2008
  • “The Conscious Universe: Where Buddhism and Physics Converge,” sponsored by the Committee for the Study of Science and Religion, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, April, 2008
  • “Advancing the Legacy of William James: The Radically Empirical Study of the Mind,” sponsored by the Center for Ethics and Transformative Values, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), April, 2008
  • “Advancing the Legacy of William James: The Radically Empirical Study of the Mind” at Hartwick College, New York, April, 2008
  • “A Buddhist View of Free Will: Beyond Determinism and Indeterminism,” presented at Neuroscience of Free Will Symposium, Columbia University, New York, March, 2008
  • Respondent to Prof. Harold Roth’s Hsuan Hua Memorial Lecture “Against Cognitive Imperialism,” presented at Pacific School of Religion, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California, March, 2008
  • “Principles of a Contemplative Science of the Mind,” sponsored by the Psychiatry and Spirituality Forum, University of California, Irvine, January, 2008
  • “The Encounter between Buddhism and Science” and “Buddhist Views of Mental Well- being,” presented at the conference “Buddhism & Science” in the College of Religious Studies, Mahidol University, Bangkok, August, 2007
  • “Buddhism in the West,” presented at Zanabazar University, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, July, 2007
  • “Principles of a Contemplative Science,” presented in the Mind/Supermind lecture series, Santa Barbara City College, January, 2007
  • Panel discussant on “Interpreting Quantum Mechanics: Buddhist and Christian Perspectives,” with Charles H. Townes and William R. Stoeger, sponsored by the Science, Technology, and Religion Group of the American Academy of Religion, Washington D.C., November, 2006
  • “Contemplative Science,” presented at the conference on “Understanding Mind Inside and Out: Bridging Buddhism and Modern Science,” sponsored by the Program in Science and Society, the Emory-Tibet Partnership, Emory Contemplative Initiative, Office of the Dean of the College and the Religion Department, Emory University, October, 2006
  • Discussant at the conference “William James Revisited? The Importance of William James for Buddhism and Science,” Leiden Institute for the Study of Religions at Leiden University, September, 2006
  • Plenary speaker at the meeting “Meditation: Does It Work?” sponsored by the Center for Science and Worldview at the University of Tilburg, The Netherlands, September, 2006
  • “Observing the Mind: A Buddhist Approach to Exploring Consciousness,” a plenary Experiential Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society at St Anne’s College, Oxford, September, 2006
  • “Observing the Mind: A Buddhist Approach to Exploring Consciousness, presented at the “Science, Mind and Buddhism” Seminar, with H. H. the Dalai Lama, in Santiago, Chile, The University of Valparaiso and the University of Chile, May, 2006
  • “Toward the First Revolution in the Mind Sciences,” presented at Zentrum für Neurowissenschaft, Zürich, Switzerland, June, 2006
  • “Unmasking Idols in Religion and Science” and “Dependent Origination in Buddhism and Science,” presented at the Scuola Superiore S. Anna, in La Normale University, Pisa, Italy, April, 2006
  • “Toward a Science of Contemplative Practice: Issues, Findings, and Experiential Training in Meditative Quiescence,” co-presented with Dr. Clifford Saron at the “Toward a Science of Consciousness” conference, University of Arizona, Tucson, April, 2006
  • “Naturalizing the Mind Sciences,” a keynote lecture at the conference on “Mind & Reality: A Multidisciplinary Symposium on Consciousness,” Center for the Study of Science and Religion, Columbia University, February 2006
  • “From Cognitive Science to a Science of Consciousness,” sponsored by Religion Department, Psychology Department, and Asian Studies Department, Colorado College, January, 2006
  • “Beyond Idolatry: Where Science and Spirituality Converge,” Georgetown University, Washington DC, November, 2005
  • “Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-being,” presented at the conference on “Gross National Happiness: Bhutan’s Unique Approach to Social and Economic Progress,” University of California, Berkeley, co-sponsored by Swissnex, Annex of the Consulate General of Switzerland, January, 2006
  • “The Buddhist Science of Meditation,” presented at the conference “Mind and Life XIII, Johns Hopkins University, Washington DC, November, 2005
  • “A Buddhist View of Craving and Choice,” presented at the conference with His Holiness the Dalai Lama on “Craving, Suffering, and Choice: Spiritual and Scientific Explorations of Human Experience,” Stanford University, November, 2005
  • “The Buddhist Investigation of Consciousness,” presented at the “Symposium on the East-West Encounter: Eastern and Western Perspectives on Consciousness, Spirituality, Healing, and World Peace,” presented at the Asian American Cultural Center, Rutgers University, October, 2005
  • “Paths to Genuine Happiness,” presented at Rio de Janeiro’s State University, Brazil, June, 2005
  • “Choosing Reality: A Buddhist View of the Mind and Nature,” presented at the Institute of Physics, sponsored by the Department of Theology, Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, Brazil, June, 2005
  • “A Buddhist View of Optimal Mental Health,” the inaugural lecture in the series “Exploring the Mind: Buddhist and Scientific Approaches to Mental Health and Healing,” Department and Centre for the Study of Religion and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, April, 2005
  • “Observing the Mind: A Buddhist Approach to Exploring Consciousness,” at the First Annual Brown University Mary Interlandi ’05 Memorial Lecture on Contemplative Studies, Office of the Chaplains and Religious Life, Brown University, April, 2005
  • “Meta-cognition in Real Time and As Short-term Memory,” presented at the Center for Mind and Brain, University of California, Davis, March, 2005
  • “Principles of a Buddhist Science of Mind,” University of Virginia Department of Religious Studies and the Tibetan Himalayan Digital Library, January, 2005
  • “Cognitive Science Dialogue: Consciousness East and West,” a debate with John Searle, Cognitive Science Program, Northwestern University, January, 2005
  • “Three Dimensions of Consciousness: A Buddhist Phenomenology of the Mind,” presented at the conference on “From Autopoiesis to Neurophenomenology: A Tribute to Francisco Varela,” Amphithéâtre Richelieu, Université Panthéon- Sorbonne, Paris, June, 2004
  • “Meta-cognition in Real Time and As Short-term Memory” and “Objectivity and Cognitive Invariance: A Buddhist View,” presented at the conference on “Science et subjectivité,” CREA CNRS/École Polytechnique, Paris, June, 2004
  • “First-, Second-, and Third-Person Perspectives in the Study of the Mind: Where Buddhism and Science Meet,” Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, La Normale University, Pisa, June, 2004
  • “A Buddhist Model of Mental Health,” Department of Psychology and the Center for Cognitive Science, University and Polytechnic of Torino, Italy June, 2004
  • “The Impact of Buddhism on Western Science and Philosophy,” presented at the congress on “Buddhism in Belgium, Buddhism in the West,” University of Louvain, Belgium, November, 2003
  • “A Buddhist Ideal of Mental Health: Balancing Attention, Emotions and Cognition,” presented at the 2nd International Conference on Traditional Tibetan medicine, Washington D.C., November, 2003
  • “Outer, Inner, and Nondual Space,” presented at the conference on “Space in Mind: at the Interface of Inner and Outer Space,” at King Alfred’s College, Winchester, April, 2003
  • “Vacuum States of Consciousness: A Tibetan Buddhist View,” presented at the 5th Biennial International Symposium of Science, Technics and Aesthetics: “Space, Time and Beyond,” Lucerne, Switzerland, January, 2003
  • “Why the West Has No Science of Consciousness: A Buddhist View,” presented at the conference on “Indic Contributions to a Global Renaissance,” Columbia University Institute of Buddhist Studies, July, 2002
  • “A Science of Consciousness: Buddhism (1) the Modern West (2),” presented at the conference on “Wisdom, Compassion, and Consciousness: Buddhist Practice and Cognitive Science.” Sponsored by the Institute of Buddhist Studies and the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences, Berkeley, California, May, 2002
  • “The Intersubjective Worlds of Science and Religion,” presented as part of the lecture series on “Science, Religion, and the Human Experience,” University of California, Santa Barbara. Sponsored by the John Templeton Foundation, June, 2001
  • “Vacuum States of Consciousness: A Tibetan Buddhist View,” presented at the conference on “Nothing in Common: Scientific and Contemplative Views on Nothing,” University of California, Santa Barbara, May, 2001
  • “Cosmology in Science, a Buddhist Reflection,” presented at the conference on “Religion and Its New Challenges,” Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California, April, 2001
  • “The Humoral Theory and Models of Optimal Physical and Mental Health in Traditional Tibetan Medicine,” University of Virginia School of Medicine, October, 2000
  • “A Reassessment of the Status of Buddhism as a Non-theistic Religion,” Center for South Asian Studies, University of Virginia, October, 2000
  • “Vital Energies and Healing: Ancient and Modern Perspectives,” presented at the 3rd Annual University of California, Santa Barbara Conference on Global Medicine, entitled “The Influence of Mind on Healing and Dying,” May, 2000
  • The Retinal Blind Spot in the Scientific Vision of Our Origins,” presented in the Veritas Forum Lecture Series entitled “Our Journey: Origins and Destinations,” University of California, Santa Barbara, May, 2000
  • “The Refinement and Epistemic Uses of Mental Perception in Tibetan Buddhism,” a plenary lecture presented at the conference “Toward a Science of Consciousness: Tucson 2000, sponsored by the Center for Consciousness Studies, the University of Arizona, April, 2000
  • “First-, Second-, and Third-person Methods for Studying Consciousness,” Department of East Asian Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, February, 2000
  • “The Encounter between Tibetan Buddhism and Modern Science,” presented at the symposium on “Representing Tibet,” University of Colorado, Boulder. Sponsored by the Center for Humanities and the Arts, Center for Asian Studies, and the School of Law, January, 2000
  • “Is Buddhism Really Non-theistic?” Presented at the National Conference of the American Academy of Religion, Boston, Mass., November, 1999
  • “The Buddhist Pursuit of Spiritual Awakening and the Scientific Pursuit of Objective Knowledge,” presented at the conference on “Globalizing Philosophy: Comparing Eastern and Western Approaches to the Central Metaphysical Issues of Philosophy and Science,” Department of Religion, Columbia University, April, 1999
  • “Monastic Education in Traditional Tibet,” presented at the conference on “Life in Traditional Tibet,” University of California, Santa Barbara, January, 1999
  • “Tibetan Medicine in the Context of Tibetan Buddhism,” presented at the First International Congress on Tibetan Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington DC, November, 1998
  • “Training the attention and exploring consciousness in Tibetan Buddhism” presented at the conference on “Toward a Science of Consciousness,” University of Arizona, April, 1998
  • “A Madhyamaka Critique of the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics,” presented at the conference “The Metaphysics of Quantum Mechanics,” Philosophy Department, Rutgers University, April, 1998
  • “Buddhism and Modern Science,” a guest lecture, University of California, Los Angeles, Extension, March, 1998
  • “A Madhyamaka View of the Foundations of Modern Physics,” presented at the conference on “Physics and Tibetan Buddhism: Dialogues between Physicists and Buddhist Scholars,” University of California, Santa Barbara, January, 1998
  • “Psychological Maturation and Spiritual Awakening in Tibetan Buddhism,” presented at the National Conference of the American Academy of Religion, San Francisco, California, November 1997
  • “Buddhist Mind Control,” Psychology Department, Stanford University, January 1997
  • “The Dialectic between Contemplative Knowledge and Religious Belief in Tibetan Buddhism,” presented at the National Conference of the American Academy of Religion, New Orleans, Louisiana, November, 1996
  • “The Science of Logic in Indo-Tibetan Buddhist Education” presented at the Third University of California, Santa Barbara Conference on Tibetan Buddhism, Santa Barbara, California, November, 1996
  • “Logic and Debate in Tibetan Buddhist Culture,” presented at the “Model of Education Conference,” John E. Fetzer Institute, Kalamazoo, Michigan, July, 1996
  • “Attentional training, introspection, and the investigation of consciousness in Tibetan Buddhism,” presented at Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University, March, 1996
  • “The Place of Consciousness in Religion and Science,” presented at the conference “Chaos, Calculus, and Comparative World Views” at Evergreen State College, Olympia, Washington, sponsored by the National Science Foundation, August, 1995
  • “The Tibetan Cultivation of Shamatha (Meditative Quiescence) and the Nature of Consciousness,” presented at the Second University of California Conference on Tibetan Buddhism: “The Nature of Mind in Tibetan Buddhism” Department of Religious Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, May, 1995
  • “The Contemplative Use of Introspection in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism,” presented at the Annual Meeting of the Western Region of the American Academy of Religion, University of Redlands, California, March, 1995
  • “What is Meditation?” Presented at Mind/Body Node of the MacArthur Foundation, Chicago Headquarters, December, 1992
  • “Lucid Dreaming and Tibetan Buddhist Dream Yoga,” presented at the Evergreen College, Olympia, April, 1992
  • “The Meditative Cultivation of Attentional Stability and Clarity,” presented at the Psychiatry Department, University of California at Irvine, March, 1992
  • “Emptiness, Conceptual Schemas and the Practice of Vajrayāna,” presented at the Religious Studies Department, University of California at Santa Barbara, December, 1991
  • “Tibetan Buddhist Perspectives on Relative and Ultimate Truths” and “Buddhism in the World of Science,” presented at the Religion Department, Willamette University, Salem, September, 1991
  • “From Cognitive Science to a Science of Consciousness,” presented at the conference on “Renewal of Thinking in Science and Technology,” Mt. Holyoke College, Massachusetts, sponsored by Laurence Rockefeller, June, 1991
  • “Methods and Applications of Enhancing Focused Attentional Duration,” presented at the Psychiatry Department, Stanford University School of Medicine, June, 1991
  • “Contemplative Ways of Knowing in Tibetan Buddhism” and “Tibetan Culture in the Modern World,” presented at the Religious Studies Department, Reed College,
  • Portland, April, 1991
  • “A Tibetan Buddhist View of Modern Science,” presented at the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, October, 1986